Harvard University professor Claudia Goldin was awarded the Nobel economics prize on Monday for her research into what is driving the gender pay gap — women are now better educated, on average, than males, yet in the U.S. they make a little more than 80 cents for every dollar a man makes.
Goldin’s research has traced the contemporary gender pay gap to what she calls “greedy work” — the kind of jobs that demand long hours and around-the-clock availability. Most caregiving responsibilities still disproportionately fall on women, and many working mothers opt to take jobs with higher flexibility and lower pay, Goldin told Harvard Business Review.
Over the last two centuries, gender wage gaps could be explained by differences in education and occupation, but “the bulk of this earnings difference is now between men and women in the same occupation,” the Royal Swedish Academy wrote in awarding the Nobel Prize to Goldin, “and it largely arises with the birth of the first child.”
One of the results of Goldin’s research is that it challenges the arguments that men earn more than women simply because women prefer different kinds of occupations or that wage gaps can be explained solely by discrimination. According to her research, women with children often work in firms or for institutions that demand less of their time.
Child-care shortages during the pandemic put even more strain on working mothers. U.S. women had the highest participation in the labor force in the 1990s, but are now are less likely to work than their counterparts in France, Canada, or Japan, Goldin told Associated Press. “When I look at the numbers, I think something has happened in America,” Golding said. “We have to ask why that’s the case. … We have to step back and ask questions about piecing together the family, the home, together with the marketplace and employment.’’
What About the Business Events Industry?
What could that mean for the events industry, where an estimated 77 percent are women and, on average, are out-earned by men?
One thing conference organizers can do to help level the playing field in the sectors they serve is to remove hurdles for participants and speakers by providing child care at their events. They also can offer online events as a way to include more participation by women — two separate studies revealed that online events held during the pandemic resulted in increased participation among women as both as attendees and speakers, compared to their in-person, pre-pandemic versions.
Overall, employers can look at offering flexibility to their employees — not just as a benefit for them, but an economic advantage to their companies, as a way of retaining talented women who might otherwise leave jobs in order to meet caregiving responsibilities. In 2021, the cost of women exiting the workforce was a $97-billion increase in GDP losses.
For many workers, the pandemic’s silver lining has been an increase in flexible and hybrid work environments, “including business events professionals,” we wrote in an analysis of Convene’s 2022 Salary Survey. Before the pandemic, only 14 percent worked from home full-time, and one-third worked from home part-time. “In 2022,” we wrote, “85 percent said they work for employers with flexible hybrid work policies” — and the same percentage said they are hybrid workers according to the preliminary results from our 2023 Salary Survey.
And while no direct relationship can be drawn from our surveys on the effect of work flexibility on pay, it is worth noting that between the 2020 and 2022 surveys — the same period that saw a massive growth in flexible work — the gap between male and female pay also closed significantly: In the 2020 survey, women averaged $14,000 less than their male counterparts; in the 2022 survey, men out-earned women by only around $5,000.
The growth in flexible schedules doesn’t mean that meeting professionals are working less intensely or for fewer hours — half of the 2022 survey respondents said they worked more than 40 hours a week and nearly one-quarter worked 50 hours a week. Nearly 80 percent of planners said they had more responsibilities added to their job description in 2022, compared to 67 percent who said the same in 2020. But when respondents were asked to list what they liked best about their jobs in an open-ended question, among the most highly valued aspects — as Goldin’s research also showed — were flexibility and the ability to control their own time.
We’ll see if this trend toward closing the wage gap continues in this year’s Salary Survey, which will be published in our December issue. Stay tuned.
Barbara Palmer is deputy editor of Convene.